I research climate change for the EU. My work is used to define policy; the policies are imposed on Member states, Companies in member states, consumers etc. Companies, for example, may change the way they work or their products specifications to meet new requirements. For example, vehicle manufacturers change their vehciles to meet Co2 regulations imposed by the EU and as such invest in electrification. For the OEMs this is the beginning of a completely new set of suppliers. The customer on the other hand is less dependant, in this case, on oil to run their vehicle but requires more electricity from the grid. In order to meet Co2 targets and reap the benefits of electrification the governments need to change the way electricity is produced, so they invest in new Nuclear Reactors and subcontract to EDF for example. EDF now has a big contract and employs more people to meet their customers demand. This increase in demand for stable, cleaner energy can then lead to more mining of Uranium… and the story goes on and on and on….
It’s worth noting that the commodity of exchange was originally money (my salary) for knowledge (my research) – and that’s not the beginning but just my own begging of this complex, cumbersome chain – and later became obedience (to law) in exchange for for permission (i.e., to sell) which then became (and not ended with) cars for money and so on…This chain at every stage grows and becomes even more complex and non-linear.